Chronology of Islamic Civilization

Based on the "Chronological Table" in Gerhard Endress, An Introduction to Islam, tr. Carole Hillenbrand, New York:Columbia University Press. 1988

I. Arabia before Islam

4th - 6th c. Arabia in the foreground of the wars between Rome/Byzantium and Persian and the conflict of their vassals in Abyssinia and South Arabia.

3rd - 7th Arab buffer states: Late 3rd to 602 The Lakhmids of al-Hira were vassal governors of the Sasanians (of Persia) in Iraq.

502 - 614 The Ghassanids, phylarchs of the Byzantines on the Syrian border.

6th - 7th Bedouinisation and economic collapse of South Arabia. Byzantium and Persia attempted via Abyssinia and South Arabia to bring the Arabian peninsula and the transit trade under their control.

until 528 Al-Harith ibn 'Amr (Arethas) king of the Kinda at the apogee of their power in North Arabia.

503-4 The Lakhmid al-Mundhir III ibn al-Nu'man of al-Hira.

525 Death of the Jewish king Dhu Nuwas of Yemen; South Arabia becomes an Abyssinian colony.

529-69 The Ghassanid al-Harith IV ibn Jabala, Byzantine patricius and phylarch of the Arabs, defeats Mundhir III in 554.

570 (?) Third breaking of the Ma'rib dam leads to the end of ancient South Arabian high culture. The Abyssinian governor of Yemen, Abraha, leads an unsuccessful attack on Mecca ('Year of the Elephant'), directed at the authority and economic power of the shrine.

575 The Yemen became a Sasanian province (from 598 under Persian satraps.

602 End of the Lakhmids of al-Hira.

610 Arab tribes defeated an Arab-Persian army at Dhu Qar in Iraq.

II. Muhammad

610 Muhammad experiences the first revelation and appears in Mecca as the Prophet of Islam.

613 Beginning of public preaching.

615 Emigration of a group of Muslims to Abyssinia.

616-19 Boycott of the Quraysh against Muhammad's clan (the Banu Hashim).

620-22 Members of the Aws and Khazraj tribes of Yathrib (Medina) converted to Islam and negotiated with Muhammad with the aim of making him leader of their strife-ridden tribal community.

622 The Hijra: emigration of Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib (now: Madinat al-Nabi, "the city of the Prophet," or simply, al-Madina). Foundation of the first Islamic community; social and economic reforms. Starting point of the Islamic calendar.

624 Expedition of Badr: victory of the Muslims over the Quraysh of Mecca.

625 Defeat of Muhammad by the Meccans at the mountain of Uhud. Expulsion of the Jewish tribe of the Banu Nadir.

626 Expedition to Dumat al-Jandal against tribes in the Syrian border area.

627 Unsuccessful siege of Medina by the Quraysh (the, Battle of the Trench," al-Khandaq. Destruction of the Jewish Banu Qurayza. Subjugation of the Bani Kalb at Dumat al-Jandal.

628 Treaty of Hudaybiyya opens access to the shrine of Mecca to the Muslims (first pilgrimage 629). Conquest of the Jewish oasis, Khaybar.

629 Unsuccessful expedition against Byzantine territory (Mu'ta).

630 Bloodless conquest of Mecca.

630-32 Subjugation of the tnbes of the Arabian peninsula. Battle of Hunayn. Siege of al-Ta'if. Campaign against the Ghassanids, vassals of Byzantium, atTabuk.

632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage and death of the Prophet Muhammad.

III. The Caliphate until the End of the Umayyads

(a ) The period of the orthodox' caliphs. The emergence of the Arab state.

632-34 Widespread tribal rebellion on the death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr, the first caliph (khalifa) reimposes the authority of the Islamic government throughout Arabia and sends Arab armies of conquest against Mesopotamia and Syria.

633 Conquest of southern Mesopotamia.

634 Victory against the Byzantines in Palestine (Ajnadayn).

634-44 The caliphate of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia. Garrisons established in the conquered lands, and the Muslim rulers begin to take control of financial organisation.

635 Damascus submits to the Muslims.

636 Defeat of a powerful Byzantine army (Yarmuk River) delivers Syria to the Muslims. Muslims occupy Damascus.

636 (?) The Arabs under Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas defeat a Sasanian army in the battle of Qadisiyya (near Hira), gaining Iraq west of the Tigris. A second victory follows at Jalula, near Ctesiphon.

638 Council of Jabiya (Syria): 'Umar confers with the Prophet's companions on the division and organisation of the domains acquired in the conquests; thereafter the setting up of the Diwan (army lists) that become the basis of pensions around 640.

Conquest of Jerusalem.

The garrison towns of Basra (founded 635) and Kufa become centers for the military government of Iraq, and the starting point for further campaigns of conquest east and north.

639-42 Conquest of Egypt (642 taking of Alexandria) by 'Amr ibn al-'As. Taking of the sea port of Caesarea in Palestine - end of the Byzantine presence in Syria.

640-42 Conquest of Persia (640 Khuzistan; 641 decisive battle of Nihavand in the Zagros).

641 Conquest of Mosul (upper Mesopotamia) and of Babylon in Egypt (Arab garrison, Fustat, established south of the future Cairo).

642 Conquest of Alexandria. Campaign to Barqa (Tripolitania, 642-43)

643 Campaigns to the coast of Makran and southeast Iran.

644-56 Murder of the Caliph 'Umar (644). Caliphate of 'Uthman. Continuation of the conquests in north and east Iran and North Africa. Inter-tribal conflicts within the Islamic state over who will rule. from 645 Beginnings of Arab sea-power, directed against Byzantium.

645-6 Alexandria reconquered by the Byzantines, retaken by the Muslims.

647 Conquest of Tripolitania. First Arab campaigns in North Africa.

649 Beginning of war at sea against Byzantium and the conquest of Cyprus .

649 - 50 Conquest of Persepolis, the capital of south central Iran (Fars) and center of Zoroastrianism.

Yazdagird III, the last Sasanian king, is murdered on his retreat to Khurasan.

Subjugation of Armenia. The Byzantine fleet is pushed back before Alexandria. Attack on Sicilian harbours. Conclusion of a treaty with Nubia. 'Uthman authorises collection and official establishment of the text of the Koran (already begun under Umar).

Muslim sea-power destroys the Byzantine fleet before Asia Minor.

656 Murder of 'Uthman by opponents of his financial and administrative policies.

656-6 Caliphate of 'Ali, cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet; seat of government in Kufa. Civil war between the party (shi'a) of 'Ali and his opponents from among the Quraysh.

656 Ali victorious in the "Battle of the Camel" at Basra over political opponents (Talha, Zubayr, 'A'isha).

657 Battle of Siffin between 'Ali and Mu'awiya.

658 'Adruh arbitrates between 'Ali and Mu'awiya, and refuses to pronounce 'Ali legitimate caliph. Syrian troops proclaim Mu'awiya caliph. Protest in 'Ali's camp against arbitration decision and departure' from Kufa: party of Kharijites (Khawarij) defeated by Ali at Nahrawan, but spread among Arab Bedouins and settled tribes. Growing danger through social tensions in Iraq.

661 Murder of Ali by Kharijites - his son Hasan renounces claims to the caliphate.

Beginning of the rule of the Arab Umayyad dynasty which retains caliphate until defeated by Abbasids in 750.

(b) The caliphate of the Umayyads

661-80 Caliphate of the Umayyad Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, a kinsman of the caliph Uthman, and the first great caliph of the dynasty. Damascus becomes the new capital. Mu'awiya's caliphate begins the second major period of expansion.

662-75 Ziyad ibn Abihi governor in Iraq (Basra) and governor of the former Sasanian provinces.

667 The Arabs occupy Chalcedon, threaten Byzantium and take Sicily.

670 Beginning of operations against the Berbers and of the conquest of North Africa by 'Uqba ibn Nafi'. Foundation of Qayrawan (Kairouan).

672 Beginning of the 'seven year' Arab siege of Constantinople.

680-83 Caliphate of Yazid I, son of Mu'awiya.

680 Husayn ibn 'Ali leads the uprising of the 'Alid party in Kufa and is killed at Karbala. His martyrdom makes him a central figure for the Shi'a.

683-92 The second civil war. After the death of Yazid I (683-84), Mu'awiya II 'Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr sets up an anti-caliphate in the Hijaz. In Kufa Mukhtar tries to set up the authority of the 'Alids. During his brief caliphate, Marwan I (684-5) regain Syria for the Umayyads at the battle of Marj Rahit (684), and 'Abd al-Malik (685-7), Marwan's son, re-establishes control over all Islamic provinces.

685-87 Religious and socially motivated uprising of the Shi'a under Mukhtar in Iraq in the name of the 'Alid Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya.

685-705 Caliphate of 'Abd al-Malik, the second great Umayyad caliph. Period of far-reaching administrative reforms.

691 Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr, the brother of the pretender 'Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr and his governor in Iraq, murdered. 'Abd al-Malik conquers Iraq.

692 Capture of Mecca by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. End of the anti-caliphate of 'Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr.

694-714 Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, governor in Iraq, pacifies the province disturbed by sectarian uprisings and revolts. Administrative and economic reorganization. Final removal of the Byzantines from Carthage. Monetary reform: replacement of Sasanian and Byzantine coinages by coins with Arab-Islamic legend. Introduction of Arabic as language of government. Revolt of Ibn al-Ash'ath in Southern Persia and in Iraq. Rebuilding of the church of St John in Damascus and transformation into the Umayyad mosque.

705-11 Caliphate of al-Walid I. Consolidation and greatest expansion of the empire.

711 Tariq ibn Ziyad attacks southern Spain - beginning of the conquest of al-Andalus. Destruction of the Gothic army of King Roderick at Wadi Bakka. Conquest of Sind by Muhammad ibn al-Qasim.

712 Qutayba ibn Muslim, Arab governor of Khurasan, conquers Khwarazm and Transoxiana. Beginning of the Islamisation of Central Asian urban centers: Marv, Bukhara, Samarqand.

715-17 Caliphate of Sulayman. Unsuccessful siege of Byzantium.

717-20 Caliphate of 'Umar II. Tax reform to remove social tension prevents emigration from the countryside - converted non-Muslims (mawali) exempted from the poll-tax (jizya) but not from the land tax (kharaj).

719 Cordoba becomes the residence of the Arab governors of al-Andalus.

720-24 Caliphate of Yazid II.

724-43 Caliphate of Hisham, the third and last great Umayyad caliph. Economic exploitation of Transoxiana and North Africa encourages opposition movements.

725 First tax rebellion of the Copts.

728 Battle of Tours and Poitiers (Charles Martel;. The Arabs withdrew to the Southem Rhone valley - 737 second campaign of Charles Martel, unsuccessful siege of Narbonne (relinquished in 759)

734-46 Rebellion of al-Harith ibn Surayj in Khurasan: mawali. demand for fiscal equality, and equal pay with the Arabs.

740 Uprising of Zayd ibn 'Ali in Kufa.

Berber revolts in Morocco under Kharijite leadership.

743-44 Caliphate of al-Walid II. Quarrels over succession within the Umayyad dynasty.

744 Caliphate of Yazid III. Abu Muslim begins public anti-Umayyad agitation in favour of the 'Abbasids in Khurasan.

Caliphate of Ibrahim.

Anti-Umayyad revolt of 'Abdallah ibn Mu'awiya with strong mawali support.

744-750 Marwan II, at first pretender against Yazid III and Ibrahim, emerges from the succession struggles of the Umayyads as the last caliph of the dynasty - attempts consolidation by reform of the army, but too late.

745 Epidemic of plague in Iraq, upper Mesopotamia and Syria.

746 Uprisings of the Kalb in Syria and of the Kharijites in Iraq.

747 Abu Muslim unfurls the black banner of the 'Abbasids in Khurasan, signalling the start of the revolution.

748 Qahtaba defeats the Umayyad governor of Khurasan.

749 'Abbasid forces gain control of all Persia, and occupy Kufa.

749-50 The 'Abbasid revolution ends the caliphate of the Umayyads.

750-1258 The caliphate of the 'Abbasid dynasty (Banu l-'Abbas). and its successor states endures, with decreasing political authority, until the Mongols destroy Baghdad in 1258.

749-54 Caliphate of Abu 'l-'Abbas al-Saffah. The last Umayyad caliph Marwan II was defeated in the decisive battle on the Great Zab and fell in Egypt (751). Massacre of the Umayyad family and its high officials.

751 Battle of Atlakh on the Talas: the Arabs defeated a Chinese army in Central Asia and become acquainted with paper from prisoners. The production of paper begins at Samarqand.

754-75 Caliphate of al-Mansur. 
Break with the radical Shi'a, uprisings of 'Alid pretenders. Establishment of a standing army of Khurasanians. The post of Minister of Post and Infornmation (sahib al-barid wa'l-khabar) is made into an instrument of government control.

755 Al-Mansur has Abu Muslim murdered.

755-88 'Abd al-Rahman I, since 756 amir of Cordoba, establishes the SpanishUmayyad dynasty (755 - 1031).At first the rulers bear the title amir, but from 929 they take the title of caliph. Persistent unrest through the mutual rivalry of Arab tribes and with newly-converted Muslims.

756 (?) Execution of the Iranian writer 'Abdallah ibn al-Muqaffa' (Ibn Khordadbeh), the translator of Persian literature (Mirror for Princes, histoncal and philosophical works) into Arabic.

762-63 Al-Mansur founds Baghdad as the capital city of the 'Abbasid empire, the commercial and cultural center of the Islamic world. 'Alid uprisings in Iraq and Medina (Muhammad ibn 'Abdallah).

765 Death of Ja'far al-Sadiq Imam of the Husaynid line of the Shi'a the division of the Shi' begins after his death.

767 Death of Abu Hanifa, the authority for whom the Iraqi school of law, the Hanafites, is named.

767/768 Death of the historian Ibn Ishaq, the author of the classical biography (sira) of Muhammad.

775-85 Caliphate of al-Mahdi, the Iranian Barmecide family of viziers (until 803). Campaign against new Mazdakite and Manichean sects.

776-79 Uprising of al-Muqanna' (the Veiled One) in Khurasan.

777-909 Kharijite kingdom of the Rustamids in Tahar. (Western Algeria).

778 Failure of the expedition of Charlemagne in the Basque country and the destruction of parts of his army under Roland at Roncesvalles.

785-86 Caliphate of al-Hadi. The building of the Great Mosque at Cordoba.

786 Death of al-Khalil ibn Ahmad (also dated 776 or 791), grammarian, lexicographer and prosodist. His pupil Sibawayh produced the first systematic grammar of Arabic.

786-809 Caliphate of Harun al-Rashid. The post of chief judge (qadi 'l-qudat) was created. Abu Yusuf Yaqub wrote the Book of Land-Tax. Apogee of the caliphate and flourishing of Arabic literature and science.

789-926 The Idrisids 'Alid dynasty of Morocco.

795 Death of Malik ibn Anas, jurist and reputed founder of the Malikite school of law, in Medina.

796-822 Al-Hakam I caliph in Spain; rebellions in Cordoba, city-state in Toledo.

798 Death of the jurist Abu Yusuf Ya'qub, beside Mubammad al-Shaybani (d. 805) the most important disciple of Abu Hanifa (cf 767 above)

800 Islamic merchants in China (Canton). Foundation of a paper factory in Baghdad.

800-12 Ibn al-Aghlabid, governor of Ifriqiyya (Tunisia, capital Qayrawan). Aghlabids rule region from 800-909.

803 Harun al-Rashid murders his vizier, Ja'far the Barmecide (Al Barmak), and orders the destruction of this powerful vizierial family.

806 Conquest of Tyana; Arab advance as far as Ankyra.

808 Foundation of Fez by the Idnsids.

809-13 Caliphate of al-Amin. After the death of Harun al-Rashid the empire was divided between his two sons. Al-Ma'mun, who was supported by Khurasanian troops, defeated al-Amin and reunited the empire (813)

From 810 In Baghdad, the jurist al-Shafi'i, pupil of Malik ibn Anas begins the systematisation of the sources of the Sharia.

813 The Khurasanian army under Tahir ibn al-Husayn besieged and conquered Baghdad for al-Ma'mun. Murder of al-Amin.

813-33 Caliphate of al-Ma'mun. Cultural and scientific heyday. Promotion of translations of the works of Greek philosophers and scientists ('academy' or Bayt al-Hikma) Suppression of the traditionalist piety of the ahl al-hadith in favour of the rationalistic dogmatics of the Mu'tazila. Tendencies towards independence in the provinces.

814 [815?] Death of Abu Nuwas, representative of new themes and forms in Arabic poetry.

816 Death of the Sufi Ma'ruf al-Karkhi.

816-37 Revolts of Babak (Mazdakite sects of the Khurramiyya, dualists who believed in the transmigration of souls) against the landed nobility and Arabs in Adharbayjan, from 827 also in Western Persia. In Marv, al-Ma'mun designates the eighth Shi'ite imam 'Ali al-Rida (d.818) as his successor: short-lived attempt at reconciliation with the 'Alids.

817-9 Anti-caliphate of Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi in Baghdad. After the overthrow of the pretender, al-Ma'mun retumed to Baghdad.

820 Death of al-Shafi'i authority of the law school that came to be named for him.

821-73 Al-Mamun appoints Tahir I ibn al-Husain governor of Persia and the east. He establishes a dynasty that retains effective control of the region until replaced by the Saffarids and Samanids.

822-52 'Abd al-Rahman II of Cordoba.

823 Death of the historian al-Waqidi.

825 or 6 Death of the poet Abu l-'Atahiya.

827 Beginning of the conquest of Sicily. Al-Ma'mun initiates the Mihna (Inquisition, continued by his successors until 848): the authority of the state supports the theological teaching of the Mu'tazila, especially the dogma of the 'createdness' of the Koran. The traditionalist Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855) is persecuted as the representative of the opposition of the ahl al-hadith to rationalist theology.

829-30 Uprising of the Copts in Egypt.

831 Fall of Palermo after Arab siege (remains under Islamic authority until 1072).

833-42 Caliphate of al-Mu'tasim. Formation of a bodyguard of Turkish as well as other elite troops to protect the caliph.

836 Al-Mu'tasim founds the residential and garrison city of Samarra.

837 The caliph, al-Mutasim, sends his army to Adharbayjan under general Afshin to put down the twenty year rebellion of the Khurramiyya under Babak

841 The general al-Afshin dies in prison, accused of apostasy to Zoroastrianism.

842-7 Caliphate of al-Wathiq, last representative of strong 'Abbasid political power.

844 The Normans attack Spain and occupied Seville.

847-61 Caliphate of al-Mutawakkil. End of the Mihna . The doctrine of the ahl al-hadith is recognised as orthodoxy. Anti-rationalist reaction Persecution of the Shi'a. First caliph who was murdered by his bodyguards.

c. 847 Death of the mathematician and geographer al-Khwarazmi, from whose name we derive the term algorithm.

852-86 Muhammad I of Cordoba.

855 Death of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the teacher of hadith and the authority on the shariah who gave his name to the school of the Hanbalites.

857 Death of al-Muhasibi, an important teacher of Islamic piety and theology.

861-2 Caliphate of al-Muntasir. A decade of domination by Turkish soldiery begins.

861-945 Collapse of the 'Abbasid political power. The provinces, beginning with those at the furthest remove from Baghdad, gradually slip away from the caliphate.

862-66 Caliphate of al-Musta'in, who, like his two successors, is completely under the domination of the Turkish guard.

865 Party struggles of the Turkish generals. The population of Baghdad under the caliph defends the city against the Turkish army from Samarra.

866-9 Caliphate of al-Mu'tazz. Overthrow and murder of al-Mustain. Ya'qub ibn Laith al-Saffar (867-879) seizes control of Sistan. By the end of the ninth century he and his brother control, briefly, most of Iran except the northwest.

868 Death of the author al-lahiz master of Arabic prose and of anecdotal encyclopaedic adab literature.

868-905 Ahmad ibn Tulun(868-83) andtheTulunids independent as governors in Egypt. Egypt breaks away from the caliphate.

869 Death of Muhammad ibn Kar(r)am, teacher of the Karramiyya sect popular in Khurasan (around Nishapur).

869-70 Caliphate of al-Muhtadi. Uprising of Negro slaves (Zanj) in Southern Iraq under the 'Alid leader, 'Ali ibn Muhammad, who founds of an autonomous state (869-883).

870 Death of al-Bukhari, author of the most respected canonical collection of hadith (al-Sahih).

870-92 Caliphate of al-Mu'tamid. His brother al-Muwaffaq, as regent restores caliphal power in the territory between Syria and Khurasan.

870 (?) Death of al-Kindi, the first great Muslim Arab philosopher and scientist.

873 Ya'qub al-Saffar of Sistan conquers Khurasan from the Tahirids. Death of the Nestorian Hunayn ibn Ishaq, who led the most active phase of translating medical, scientific and philosophical works from Greek into Arabic. Disappearance of the twelfth imam of the Shi'a, who according to Shi'ite belief acts as 'Lord of the Age' in occultation (ghayba) and is awaited as the Mahdi at the end of time.

874 (?) Death of the Sufi Abu Yazid al-Bistami

875 Nasr ibn Ahmad (864-92) from the family of the Samanids (govemors of Khurasan since 819) receives the province of Transoxiana (Bukhara, Samarqand) from the caliph. The independent government of the Sunni Samanids in eastem Iran endures until 999. They actively promote New Persian literature and stimulate the awakening of Iranian national awareness. Death of Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, the author of a canonical collection of hadith.

876 Al-Muwaffaq defeats Ya'qub al-Saffar at Dayr al-'Aqul on the Tigris.

877 Ahmad ibn Tulun, govemor of Egypt, occupies Syria. Beginning of the construction of the mosque of Ibn Tulun in the garrison town of al-Qata'i' (part of modem Cairo).

878 Fall of Syracuse, the Arabs seize Sicily from the Byzantines.

879 Destruction of the important Islamic trade settlement in the Chinese sea-port of Canton (Khanfu).

879-928 'Umar ibn Hafsun and his sons challenge the authority of the Spanish Umayyad state. ???

883 The army of the caliph put an end to the state of the rebellious Zanj.

888 -912 In Cordoba, the caliphate of the Umayyad Abdallah. Ongoing strife with the rebels around Ibn Hafsun.

889 Death of the philologist, histonan and theologian, Ibn Qutayba.

c.890 The Carmathians, Arab partisans of the Isma'ili Shi 'a, under the leadership of Hamdan Qammat active in Iraq and Syria. The growing militancy of the radical Shi 'a accelerates the collapse of the caliphate.

892 Death of the hadith scholar Muhammad al-Tirmidhi, who first formulated rules for assessing the reliability ofisnads (chains of transmission;.

892-902 Caliphate of al-Mu'tadid, a period of great political and religious unrest.

894 Carmathians establish a state in eastern Arabian.

897 Establishment of the Zaydl state in the Yemen.

900 The Samanids under Isma'il (892-907) drive the Saffarids out of Khurasan. He adopts the policy of promoting the Persian language.

902-08 Caliphate of al-Muqtafi, who stabilises caliphal authority in the region between Egypt and northem Iran. The Aghlabids (800-909) in North Afnca and the Samanids (819-1005) in eastem Iran exert virtually autonomous rule. Struggles with the Cammathians.

905 -91 The Arab dynasty of the Hamdanids (929-979) rules the Jazira (upper Mesopotamia) independently from their capital, Mosul, and northem Syria (capital Aleppo) as well from945-1004. Ongoing border warfare with Byzantium.

908-32 Al-Muqtadir gains caliphate after the death of his rival 'Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz. During his reign the caliph loses authority to the viziers and military.

909-972 The Fatimids under 'Ubaydallah al-Mahdi (909-934) conquer Ifriqiyya (Tunisia) from the Aghlabids. In 969, their general, Jawhar, defeats the Ikhshidid rulers of Egypt, and they establish the Fatimid caliphate in their newly built capital, al-Qahira ("The Victorious").

910 Death of the mystic Junayd.

912-961 Abd al-Rahman III of Cordoba. Struggles against the Fatimids and the Berbers in the Maghrib. The Spanish Umayyad empire enjoys its golden age during his reign.

913-42 The Samanid Nasr II makes his realm a center of Arabic and Persian culture. The Samanid territory reaches its greatest size with major cities in Khurasan and Transoxiana-- among them Bukhara, Samarqand, and Herat.

922 Crucifixion of the mystic al-Hallaj in Baghdad.

923 Death of the Koran commentator, lawyer and historian al-Tabari (born 838). The many volumes of his Annals (AkhbÉr ar-rusñl wa'l-mulñk)incorporate the most important sources for early Islamic history, and become in turn the source for later histories.

925 Death of the physician and philosopher Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes)

929 'Abd al-RahmanIII of Cordoba adopts the title of caliph. Death of the astronomer al-Battani (Albatenius)

929-69 During his long emirate of the Hamdanid al-Hasan Nasir al-Dawla extends his rule from Mosul in upper Mesopotamia (diyÉr rabi') westward into Syria.

930 The Bahrayn Carmathians attack Mecca, massacring pilgrims and carrying off the Black Stone of the Ka'ba. Conquest of Oman.

932-34 Caliphate of al-Qahir.

934-40 Caliphate of al-Radi, during whose reign the power of the weakened caliph is usurped by the commander-in-chief of the army(amir al-umarÉ) (936). The Shi'ite military clan of the Buyids (932-1062) from Daylam on the Caspian Sea conquers most of westem Iran-Fars, Isfahan, Khuzistan, Jibal and Kerman.

935 -69 Muhammad ibn Tughj (935 -46), al-Radi's governor (Ikhshid) in Egypt, defies the Abbasid commander-in-chief and establishes independent rule in Egypt and Syria. His family holds power there until overthrown by the Fatimids.

936 (?) Death of the traditionist theologian al Ash'ari who, together with Maturidi, formulated some of the key arguments against the Mu'tazilites.

936 Muhammad ibn Ra'iq in the post of commander-in-chief at Baghdad, unites this office with financial and administrative control of the empire.

939 'Abd al-Rahman III is defeated by the Christian Ramiro of Leon at Simancas.

940 Rudaki, the first major poet in New Persian is active at the court of the Samanid Nasr II in Bukhara.

940-44 Caliphate of al-Muttaqi. from 941 Plague epidemic in Iraq.

941 Death of al-Maturidi, who, after his teacher al-Ash'ari, was the second great theologian of the sunna, and who defended orthodox teaching by means of scholastic (kalam) methods.

942 The Hamdanid al-Hasan of Mosul, becomes the protector of the caliph after the murder of Ibn Ra'iq, the last Arab commander-in-chief, and receives the title Nasir al-Dawla. In Iran the Samanid dynasty's authority begins to wane as conflicts within the court and popular uprisings in Khurasan sap its strength.

944-46 Caliphate of al-Mustakfi, who yields military and administrative power within the caliphal territory to the Buyids, who retain it for a century (945 - 1055).

944-47 Berber tribes ofNorth Africa revolt against Fatimid rule.

945-1003 Sayf al-Dawla (945-67) of the Hamdanid dynasty seizes Aleppo and Hims from the Ikhshidids of Egypt and fights against the Byzantines. He receives the Arab poet al-Mutanabbi at his court, and offers his patronage to the historian and litterateur Abu 'l-Faraj al-Isbahani and the philosopher al-Farabi as well.

945 Al-Mustakfi appoints the Buyid Mu'izz al-Dawla commander-in-chief in Baghdad.

946-74 Caliphate of al-Muti'.

949-83 'Adud al-Dawla, the most important ruler of the Buyid dynasty in Iran and, from 977, Iraq, adopts the Iranian imperial title shahanshah and pursues a vigorous expansionist policy in both the east and west.

950 Death of the philosopher al-Farabi, commentator on Aristotle, who interpreted Islamic prophecy and theocracy using concepts of Greek philosophy.

from c. 950 Conversion to Islam of Turkish tribes east of the Jaxartes (Qarluqs and Qarakhanids).

954-61 The Samanid 'Abd al-Malik I .

956 Death of al-Mas'udi, world traveller and historian, author of an encyclopaedia on history, geography and sciences.

961-76 AlHakamII of Cordoba. After his death the Spanish Umayyad caliphate collapses from within.

961-63 Alptigin, Turkish general of the Samanids, establishes autonomy in Ghazna, but rules the eastern portion of the Samanid state (Sistan, Afghanistan) in their name until 999.

965 Death of al-Mutanabbi, the last great representative of the art of classical Arabic poetry. Rebellions of youth gangs (ahdÉth ) in Antioch and Aleppo.

967 Death of Abu 'l-Faraj al-Isbahani historian and man of letters. His 'Book of Songs'(KitÉb al-aghÉni) is a major source for ancient and classical Arabic poetry.

968 Byzantium reconquers Sicily and Northern Syria.

969 The Fatimids conquer Egypt, the taking of Fustat and the founding of Cairo (al-qÉhira).TheFatimid dynasty becomes the major Mediterranean power.

972-1152 TheBerber dynasty of the Zirids in Ifriqiyya and eastern Algeria (until l049 as vassals of the Fatimids).

973 Cairo became the capital of the Fatimid caliphs. The mosque and college of al-Azhar (founded 970, completed 972) becomes the spiritual centre of the Isma'ili Shi'a.

c. 974 Death of the Samanid vizier Bal'ami, the translator of the Annals of al-Tabari into Persian.

974 Death of the Christian Arab theologian and philosopher, Yahya ibn 'Adi in Baghdad.

974-91 Caliphate of al-Ta'i'. Struggle of the caliph with the Buyid amirs for autonomy in Iraq.

977 The Buyid 'Adud al-Dawla takes over the chief emirate in Baghdad, has himself crowned king by the caliph.

977-97 SebÅktigin, the slave general of Alptigin, founds the Ghaznavid dynasty in Afghanistan, northern India and Khurasan. RasÉ'il ikhwan as-safÉ' (Letters of the Brethren of Purity) of Basra, a philosophical-scientific encyclopaedia influenced by the Isma'li Shi'ite ideology. Death of Daqiqi, a court poet of the Samanids, predecessor of Ferdowsi

983 Buyid authority declines after the death of 'Adud al-Dawla. Local rulers gain autonomy in the provinces.

991 Venice sends embassies to the Arab Mediterranean princes.

991-1031 Caliphate of al-Qadir after the deposition of at-Ta'i'. Supports traditionalist orthodoxy.

until 992 Turkish tribes of the Oghuz (Ghuzz) advance from the Kirghizian steppe towards Transoxiana and Khurasan. The clan of Seljuq (SelchÅq), a chief of the Oghuz, having converted to Islam, support the Samanids against the Qarakhanids in the fight for Bukhara (Qarakhanid conquest 992).

991-1124 The Turkish Qarakhanids (or llek-Khans) in Transoxiana (Bukhara) and eastern Turkestan. With the end of Samanid authority in central Asia, the Oxus becomes the dividing-line between the Qarakhanids and the Ghaznavids. The Oghuz in Transoxiana and Khwarazm establish themselves at Jand, on the Syr Darya (Jaxartes), and act as the mercernaries of the Seljuq clan in the service of the Qarakhanids.

994 Death of the Baghdad chief judge and man of letters al-Tanukhi.

995-1017 Khwarazmshahs of the Ma'munids in Gurganj.

996-1061 Reign of the Fatimid al-Hakim, who saw himself as the incarnation of the divine intellect. Persecution Jews and Christians ??.

998-1030 Reign of Mahmud of Ghazna, who led campaigns into northwest India (Punjab, 1001-21) and put the conquered territories under Islamic authority in the name of the 'Abbasid caliph, and who extended his rule over Khurasan, Khwarazm and western Persia.

1000 Death of al-Muqaddasi, world-traveller and geographer, author of a 'cultural geograpy' of the earth.

1002 Death of the philologist Ibn Jinni, who systematised Arabic grammar.

1006 Mahmud defeats the Qarakhanids of Turkestan.

1008 Death of Badl al-Zaman al-Hamadham, founder of the literary genre of the maqÉma (tales of social satire in rhymed prose)

c. 1010 Ferdowsi of Tus completes his versification of the Persian national epic of the ShÉhnÉma ('Book of Kings') which he dedicates to Mahmud of Ghazna.

1013 Death of al-Baqillani, jurist and theologian of the school of al-Ash'ari.

1016 Naval victory of Pisa and Genoa push the Muslims out of the Tyrrhenian Sea.

1017 Mahmud of Ghazna defeats the Ma'munid rulers of Khwarazm.

c.1020 Death of the Persian poet Ferdowsi.

1021 Death of the Sufi al-Sulami, who composed a mystical commentary on the Koran and a biographical lexicon of the Sufi teaching tradition.

1023 Death of the man of letters, philosopher and Sufi Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi .

1023-79 The Arab dynasty oi the Mirdasids in Aleppo.

1023-91 The 'Abbadids of Seville.

1027-31 Hisham III, last Umayyad ruler of Cordoba.

1029 Mahmud of Ghazna conquers Rayy and Jibal extending Ghaznavid authority to the west Persian plateau.

1030 The great polymath al-Biruni (973-c. 1050) completes his book on India (KitÉb mÉ li'l-hind). Struggles between futuwwa guilds and the Turkish garrison inBaghdad. Death of the philosopher and historian Miskawayh, who wrote works on philosophical ethics and history ('The Experiences of the Nations').

1030-41 Mahmud's son, Mas'ud, defeats his older brother, Muhammad, to become sultan of Ghazna.

1031 The Umayyad hegemony in Spain ends as al-Andalus breaks up into small states.

1031-75 Caliphate of al-Qa'im, Iast phase of freedom of action on the part of the caliph before the coming of the Seljuqs. Al-Mawardi (d.

1081) formulates the classical theory of the caliphate.

1032 Plague in Iraq, upper Mesopotamia and Syria.

1036-7 The Seljuqs Toghril Beg and Chaghri Beg conquer Khurasan from Mas'ud of Ghazna.

1036-94 The Fatimid al-Mustansir, high point of the power and the beginning of the political and religious dissolution of the Fatimid caliphate.

1037 Death of Ibn Sina (Avicenna), universal scholar, the most influential philosopher and physician of the Islamic east in the Middle Ages, who interpreted Greek metaphysics in the framework of Islam.

1038 Toghril Beg, sultan in Nishapur, Chaghri Beg in Marv.

1039 Death of Ibn al-Haytham, astronomer, mathematician and optician, sponsored by the Fatimid al-Hakim.

1039-40 Death of 'Onsori, chief panegyrist at the court of Mahmud of Ghazna.

1040 Battle of Dandanqan: the Seljuqs Toghril and Chaghri overcome Mas'ud of Ghazna. End of Ghaznavid power in Khurasan and western Persia. The Ghaznavids survive in Ghazna (Sistan and in Northwest India).

1041 The Sel juqs under Toghril occupy Khwarazm.

1043 Toghril conquers the Caspian province ofTabaristan and the Persian city of Rayy (Tehran). After negotiating with the caliph, Toghril declares himself 'protector of the commander of the faithful'. Syria slips from Fatimid control.

1044-55 Campaigns of the Seljuqs against eastem Anatolia and Armenia threaten the Byzantine empire on its eastem frontier.

1049 Death of the Persian Sufi and preacher Abu Sa'id ibn Abl'l-Khayr of Nishapur. The Zirids of Qayrawan withdrew allegiance to the Fatimids. Cairo unleashes the Hilal Bedouin against Ifriqiyya as a reprisal measure (from 1050).

from 1050 The expansion of the Arab tribes of the Banu Hilal and Sulaym into northwest Africa caused devastation of parts of the Maghrib, and was followed by a century of anarchy.

c. 1050 The Murabitun (Almoravids), warriors for the faith of the Sanhaja Berbers spread the Islamic revival movement in West Africa (Senegal estuary, Mauretania, Ghana, West Sudan).

after 1050 Death of the lranian astronomer and polymath al-Biruni (b.973).

1051 Toghril conquers Jibal and its capital,Isfahan, from the Kakuyids. The Turcoman tnbes under Seljuk control advance to Azarbaijan and upper Mesorpotamia. 5. The Seljuq period 1044 - 1155 The Seljuqs rule in Iran, Mesopotamia and Anatolia with occasional forays into Syria and Arabia. Syria and Egypt are under the control of Atabegs and Ayyubids respectively. This is the period of the Crusader incursion into the Islamic world which begin in

1099 and continues until ??. The 'Abbasid caliphate enters its final phase. The Almoravids and Almohads dominate North Africa.

1055 Sultanate of the "Great Seljuqs"- Toghril Beg, Alp Arslan, and Malikshah Toghril Beg seizes power in Baghdad, is recognised by the caliph al-Qa'im as Sultan of East and West, and puts an end to the principality of the Buyids.

1056-61 Sanhaja Berbers of the Sahara (a tribal group of the Lamtuna) under Abu Bakr ibn 'Umar establish the power of the Murabitun (Almoravids) in the Moroccan Atlas.

1057 The Banu Hilal destroy Qayrawan.

1058 Death of al-Mawardi author of 'The Ordinances of Government', on the legal theory of the political institutions of Sunni Islam. Death of the blind poet Abu'l-'Ala' al-Ma'arri (born 973), a liberal sceptic whose spare and bleakly moral poetry was widely admired.

1059-60 Interregnum of al-Basasiri (Turkish general of the last Buyid) in Iraq in the name of the Fatimid caliph.

1061-91 The Normans conquer Sicily from lower Italy (1072 Palermo).

1061-1106 The Almoravids (al-Murabitun) underYusuf ibnTashufin conquer Morocco, founding their capital at Marrakesh in 1062. In 1086 they cross the straits of Gibraltar and conquer Spain. Rigid legalism according to the doctrine of the Malikite legal school (?).

1063-72 Alp Arslan becomes the chief Seljuq sultan, first succeeding his father Chaghri Beg in 1061 as governor of eastern Iran, and then, after the defeating rival claimants at the battle of Damghan, to his uncle Toghril. He rules all Seljuq domains, and campaigns against the Fatimids in Syria (?) and the Byzantines in Anatolia.

1064 Death of Ibn Hazm, Spanish politician, theologian and man of letters.

1064-68 Attacks by Alp Arslan on Armenia and central Anatolia (1067 Caesarea/Kayseri, 1068 Iconium/Konya). The Byzantine emperor, Romanus IV Diogenes, prepares to campaign against Armenia ( 1069).

1065-72 Famine in Egypt ??.

1065-92 Nizam al-Mulk, Persian vizier of the Seljuqs Alp Arslan and Malikshah. Centralises organisation of the empire in the Iranian tradition, and expands the iqta' system of military land tenure, consolidating the urban and rural economies.

1067 Nizam al-Mulk founds an important school of Shafi'ite law in Baghdad (al-madrasa al-nizÉmiyya).

1069-70 In Kashgar (Turkestan) Yusuf of Balasaghun writes an allegorical poem in Eastem Turkish which marks the formal beginning of Islamic poetry in Turkish.

1071 Alp Arslan destroys the Byzantine army at Malazkirt (Manzikert) in Armenia and captures the emperor Romanos Diogenes, opening of Anatolia to Turcoman occupation. Rise of Malik Danishmand as leader of an autonomous principality of Turcomans in north and east Anatolia.

1072 Normans under Robert Giscard conquered Palermo (Sicily). Death of al-Qushayri author of a classical handbook of Sufism. Death of Alp Arslan on campaign against the Qarakhanids in Transoxiana.

1072-92 The Seljuq sultan Malikshah.

1073-94 Badr al-Jamali, amir and vizier of the Fatimid state.

1075 (?) Death of the Sufi al-Hujwiri, who wrote the first systematic treatment of the life and teaching of the Sufis in Persian.

1075-94 Caliphate of al-Muqtadi.

1076 End of Fatimid domination in Syria: the Turkish general Atsiz occupies Damascus and requests help from the Seljuqs. Sulayman ibn Qutalmish (Qutlumush) conquers Nicaea (Iznik) and so establishes the Seljuq house of Anatolia (the Seljuqs of Rum), which maintains its independence until 1307, when it comes under Mongol authority.

1078 The Seljuq Tutush, brother of sultan Malikshah, maintains full authority over Syria and Palestine and supplants Atsiz, and establishes a line of Seljuq rulers in Syria that continues until 1117.

1082 The leaderof the Almoravids Yusuf ibn Tashufin (1062-1106) controls an extensive territory in North Africa.

1083 Alfonso VI of Castille and Leon defeats al-Mu'tamid of Seville and conquers Toledo with the forces of the Reconquista. Death of the theologian al-Juwayni, teacher of al-Ghazali (d. 1111).

1086 Yusuf ibn Tashufin defeats the Spanish Christians under Alfonso VI in the battle of Zallaqa at Badajoz. Supremacy of the Almoravids in al-Andalus until 1148.

1088 (?) Death of Nasir-i Khusraw in Balkh the Isma'ili leader, who published works of theology and poetry, and an account of his travels from central Asia to Egypt and back (1045-52). The Fatimids take Acre, Tyre and other ports on the Palestinian coast.

1089 Death of 'Abdallah al-Ansari, Hanbalite Sufi poet and writer.

1090-1124 Hasan ibn al-Sabbah Grand Master of the militant Assassins, theNizari sect of the Isma'ilis, establishes himself and his followers in the fortress of Alamut in the Alburz mountains.

1090 The Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashufin after suppressing the petty rulers of al-Andalus (mulÅk at-tawÉ;if) becomes sole ruler of Muslim Spain.

1091 The Seljuqs make Baghdad their capital. from 1092 Numerous uprisings of popular militias ('ayyÉrin) in Baghdad.

1092 The Assassins murder theSeljuq vizier Nizam al-Mulk. With the death of Malikshah the era of unified control of the Seljuq empire by one Sultan ends, and the khans of the Seljuq clan divide up the empire among themselves.

1092-1107 In Iznik (Nicaea) after a six year lapse Qãlãch Arslan renews the authority of the Seljuqs of Rum in Anatolia, and defends his state against the Turkish Danishmendids in eastern Anatolia and with the Crusaders in the west.

1094-1118 Caliphate of al-Mustazhir. The deaths of the amir Badr al-Jamali and of the Fatimid caliph al-Mustansir begin the collapse of Fatimid authority.

1095 The Seljuq Tutush falls in the war for succession against Berkyaruq, who was sultan in Baghdad 1094-1105. His sons Ridwan governs Aleppo until 1113, and Duqaq, governs in Damascus until 1114. The Fatimids take southern Palestine. The Byzantine emperor Alexius seeks help against the Seliuqs from the Pope. At the Council of Clairmont, Pope Urban II preaches the Crusade to Jerusalem.

1095 - 1106 The jurist and theologian al-Ghazali gives up his chair at the Nizamiyya at Baghdad and in seclusion writes his principal work, The Revival of the Religious Sciences'.

1095-1153 The al-Sufi family provides the ra'is of Damascus

1096 Beginning of the First Crusade to conquer Jerusalem, instigated by Pope Urban II.

1097 Victory of the Crusaders over Qãlãch Arslan I at Dorylaeum (northwest Anatolia). The Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon take Nicaea (Iznikl, place Tarsus under the rule of Tancred ??, and besiege Antioch.The Anatolian Seliuqs made Konya their capital. Baldwin of Boulogne Duke of Edessa.

1098 The Crusaders (Bohemond of Tarentum) take Antioch. The Fatimid vizier al-Afdal takes Jerusalem from the Artuqids.

1099 The Crusaders conquer Jerusalem. Godfrey of Bouillon guardian (advocatus) of the Holy Sepulchre. Defeat of the Fatimids (al-Afdal) before the sea fortress of Acre. End of the First Crusade.

from 1100 Urban families monopolisc thc post of ra'is in Syria and upper Mesopotamia: the Nisan family rules in Amid, the Badi' family in Aleppo.

1100-30 Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem (Latin kingdom 1100-87, in Acre until 1291).

1101-30 Rule of al-Amir, last strong Fatimid caliph.

1104 Tughtigin, atabeg of the Seljuq Duqaq, succeeds him as ruler of Damascus on his death.

1105-18 Reunification of the Seljuq empire under Muhammad I ibn Malikshah. His brother Sanjar rules eastem Persia (from 1097).

1106-43 'Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashufin, ruler of Islamic Spain and North Africa. Decline of power of the Almoravids, from 1120 in conflict with the Almohad movement.

1107 Registration and redistribution of land concessions in Egypt. The Seljuq Qãlãch Arslan I falls by the Khabur River (upper Mesopotamia) in a battle with the Seljuqs of Iraq. The power of his successors remains restricted to central Anatolia (capital Konya)

1109 Agreement of Christian princes before Tnpoli on territorial claims in the Orient. Tripoli under siege falls to the Crusaders.

1111 Death of al -Ghazali, critic of speculative theology and of philosophy, and also in particular of the militant Shi'ite Isma'iliyya. He was accounted a renewer of the faith in the spirit of the Sunni tradition and Sufi piety.

1113 Death of the Seljuq Ridwan of Aleppo, succeeded by his son Alp Arslan (until 1114). For the next 25 years Aleppo remains under the rule of various lines of Seljuqs and Artuqids. Saragossa falls to Christian Aragon.

1118 After the death of Muhammad I ibn Malikshah, the Seliuq empire breaks up finally into independent small states of the sultans of Nishapur who rule Khurasan, and Baghdad who rule Iraq and westem Persia, and Anatolia-from Konya. In addition, there are independent principalities of the Atabegs in Syria, upper Mesopotamia and Azarbaijan.

1118-57 Sanjar,the son of Malikshah, from 1097 the ruler of eastern Persia (Khurasan) becomes supreme sultan of the Seljuq house after the death of his brother Muhammad. The Ghaznavids become tributaries of the Seliuqs.

1118- 35 Caliphate of al-Mustarshid.

1120-21 Muhammad ibn Tumart (d. 1130) founder of the religious reform movement of the Muwahhidun (Almohads), is recognised as Mahdi by the Masmuda Berbers. From the Atlas he and his general 'Abd al-Mu'min begin a campaign against the Almoravids of Marrakesh.

1122 Death of al-Hariri, philologist and master of the literary genre of the maqÉma (prose poem).

c. 1131 Death of Umar Khayyam, Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet of epigrammatic quatrains (ruba'iyyÉt)

1124 The Frankish and Venetian fleet take Tyre.

1126 Death of Ahmad al-Ghazali,popular Sufi teacher, and brother of Muhammad al-Ghazali (d. 1111).

1127-46 'Imad al-Dil Zangi ibn Aq-Sonqur, atabeg of the Seljuq Mughith al-Din Mahmud, governor of Mosul, and, from 1129, of Aleppo, propagates jihÉd(Holy War) and opens the offensive against the Crusader states.

1127-56 Thc Khwarazmshah Atsiz, at first governor in Gurganj of the Seliuq Sanjar, declares his independence in 1141.

1130 (?) Death of Sana'i, first great poet of Sufi mysticism in the Persian language. 

and philosophy of illumination ( hikmat alishraq ) was accused of heresy and executs on the orders of Saladin.

1192 The Ghurids take Delhi.

1193 Saladin dies in Jerusalem, and his generals divide his realm.

1194 The KhwarazmShah Tekish defeats the last Seljuq sultan of Persia.

1195 The Almohad Abu Yusuf Ya'qub alMansur wins an important victory at Alarcos over the Castilians.

1196-1549 The Berber dynasty of the Marinids of Morocco (until 1269 beside the Almohads)

1148 Death of Ibn Rushd alHafid (known in the West as Averroes), Andalusian qadi , physician and philosopher in the Aristotelian tradition, and author of important commentaries on the works of Aristotle.

1199-1214 The Almohad Muhammad alNasir in North Africa and Spain. Successes of the Reconquista.

1200-20 The empire of the KhwarazmShah 'Ala' alDin Muhammad is at its height. He restores the Iranian monarchy, but disputes the authority of the caliph alNasir.

1200 18 Saladin's brother alMalik alAdil sultan of Egypt and Syria.

1201 - 02 Plague in Egypt leads to a sharp decline in the population.

1202-04 Fourth Crusade leads to the establishment of a Latin emperorship in Constantinople.

1203-27 Temujin Ð known as Genghiz Khan after 1206 Ð establishes the Mongol empire in Chinese Central Asia.

1204 Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders. The JewishArab physician, philosopher and religious teacher Maimonides from Cordoba dies in Fustat near Cairo.

1206-10 Qutb alDin Aybak, general of the Ghurid Mu'izz alDin, establishes the sultanate of Delhi. ("Slavekings", until 1290).

1206 Temujin is acknowledged as supreme chief of the Mongols and receives the title Genghiz (Chingizl Khan.

1208 Venice accords Sultan al'Adil of Egypt trading privileges. Venice and the Ayyubids of Aleppo establish joint trading rights.

1209 Death of the theologian Fakhr alDin alRazi, defender of theSunna and of the methods of alAsh'ar in Herat. Death of the Persian poet Nizami of Ganja, important author verse romances.

1212 Peter II of Aragon defeats the Almohads in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Reconquista leads to the retreat of the Almohads from Spain (1225)

1215 The Mongols invade northern China and conquer Peking.

1218 A Mongol army under ?? invades Turkestan (Semirechye "Seven Rivers"). The KhwarazmShah 'Ala' alDin Muhammad hads the envovs of Genghiz Khan killed in Otrar on the Jaxartes.

1219-20 In retaliation, the Mongols invade Iran and the Middle East.

1218-38 After the death of alMalik al'Adil, the Ayyubid empire divides into several states, AlMalik alKamil, Sultan of Egypt, initiates policy of coexistence with the Franks.